The object of the game is to have the total point value of your cards exceed the point value of the dealer’s (house) cards without going over 21.
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You and the dealer will each receive two cards. Your cards will be dealt face-up and the dealer will receive one face-up and one face-down card. Play your hand according to the chart below. After your hand is completed, the dealer will play the house hand according to the House Rules. If your hand beats the dealer’s hand without going over 21, you win!
Blackjack, Natural as it is sometimes called, is an Ace and ten-value card on the first two cards of a hand. This is the highest hand in the game. When you are dealt a Blackjack, you cannot lose. You can only win or push. Blackjack is not the same value as a hand that totals 21. Although a hand consisting of a 6, 7 and 8 total up to 21, a Blackjack is a Natural 21 and therefore a higher hand.
This Basic Strategy for a particular set of rules was developed by intensive computer simulation which performed a complete combinatorial analysis. The computer “played” tens of thousands of hands for each BlackJack situation possible and statistically decided as to which play decision favored the player. The following chart is the results of this analysis.
STRATEGY, PROBABILITY AND CARD COUNTING IN BLACK JACK
The first recognized effort to apply mathematics to blackjack culminated in 1956 with Roger Baldwin’s paper, published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, titled “The Optimum Strategy in Blackjack”. Using calculators and probability and statistics theory, Baldwin wrote of ways to substantially reduce the house advantage. Although the title of the paper was ‘optimum strategy’, it wasn’t really the best strategy because they needed a computer to refine their system.
Professor Edward O. Thorp picked up where Baldwin left off. In 1962, Thorp refined the basic strategy and developed the first card counting techniques. He published his results in “Beat the Dealer”, a book that became so popular that for a week in 1963 it was on the New York Times best seller list.
The casinos were so affected by “Beat the Dealer” that they began to change the rules of the game to make if more difficult for the players to win. The unfavorable rules resulted in a loss of income for the casinos, so they quickly reverted back to their original rules. As Thorp’s “ten count” method wasn’t easy to master and many people didn’t really understand it anyway, the casinos made a bundle from the game’s newly gained popularity.
Another major contributor in the Togel history of blackjack is Julian Braun, who worked at IBM. His thousands of lines of computer code and hours of simulation on IBM mainframes resulted in the basic strategy, and a number of card counting techniques. His conclusions were used in a second edition of Beat the Dealer, and later in Lawrence Revere’s 1977 book “Playing BlackJack as a Business”.
Ken Uston used five computers that were built into the shoes of members of his playing team in 1977. Predictably, they won over a hundred thousand dollars in a very short time, but one of the computers was confiscated and sent to the FBI. The feds decided that the computer used public information on blackjack, and so was not a cheating device. Ken was also featured on a 1981 Sixty Minutes show and helped lead a successful legal challenge to prevent Atlantic City casinos from barring card counters.